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Editing of anime — Japanese cartoons — is a process through which the product is altered in order to make it appropriate for the public. Such a practice is quite common all over the Western world, and Italy is no exception. Japanese anime are not deed only for an audience of children, and there exist different types of products aimed at viewers of different ages; consequently, in Japan anime are shown at various time slots according to Anime italian girl characteristics. In Italy, on the contrary, cartoons are generally considered a product targeted exclusively at children, and even those anime which were originally deed for an older audience are broadcast during the protected time slot and therefore have to comply to certain standards regarding their content and the type of language spoken.
Censorship thus tends to take place both on the visual and the verbal levels: scenes considered inappropriate are removed from the story, the plot is often changed, the text is frequently domesticated in its references to the Japanese culture, and the language is flattened. Italian translators take an active part in the editing of anime : as they are the first ones to actually see the episodes, they are supposed to report to their commissioners any ambiguous element they come across, and they perform self censorship on the verbal level, manipulating the dialogue exchanges as is expected by the translation company.
Specifically, the term manga refers to Japanese graphic novels, while animean abbreviated pronunciation in Japanese of animationis a term used to refer to Japanese cartoons. However, it was only in the s that the Western world started to import Japanese animewhich grew as a major cultural export during its market expansion in the s and s. Nowadays, Italy is one of the largest importers of animeas Katan 12 notes. The scholar reports that on a single day, December 26,anime were broadcast for a total length of minutes Anime italian girl on Italian television channels Boing and Italia 1.
Even if in Western cultures cartoons are mainly considered a product targeted at an audience of children, the market of anime in Japan is extremely vast and competitive, and the products are aimed at a very heterogeneous public. This is the reason why there exist different types of animeaimed at audiences of different ages, and which are even referenced with different names.
In Japan there are proper broadcasting time slots for each age group, starting from the morning till late at night, and anime are shown during the various slots according to their characteristics. In spite of all the distinct peculiarities which characterize the variousanime are usually considered simply as generic cartoons aimed at children in most of the countries which import these series for TV broadcasting purposes. In fact, they are very often broadcast during the protected time slot,  notwithstanding the original intended age of the target audience.
This is primarily due to economic reasons, as the advertising of products and gadgets related to such cartoons is generally undertaken during the afternoon slot. Consequently, the products shown have to comply to certain standards regarding content and language. This presupposes that anime have to be edited, which is quite common in many countries.
Editing refers to a process whereby the product is altered in order to be made appropriate for the foreign audience and it includes censoring of visual as well as audio content. In fact, the only documented reports that can be found regarding this extremely common phenomenon are usually provided by anime fans the so-called otakuwho complain about the alteration of these programmes in dedicated websites or forums.
Since the practice of editing anime is quite the norm also in Italian distribution, this study will attempt to describe the various forms of censorship that are performed in this specific market in order to make the product appropriate for broadcasting on TV. Curiously enough, series released directly for the DVD market are usually not altered, and some series with edited television versions may also have DVD uncut versions.
As far as the visual code is concerned, editing and censorship take place for various reasons, which le to the alteration of the actual images in order to make them appropriate for the audience. Anime which are originally targeted at an audience of teenagers sometimes contain scenes which may be considered as vaguely erotic. Even if scenes of explicit sex are definitely rare in this category of anime, it is not so uncommon to see young female characters partially or fully naked.
This is not accepted in many Western countries which have regulations regarding child pornography that forbid showing any images of undressed children during the protected time slot. Nudity is consequently censored. However, the ways of editing these scenes differ from country to country.
In the US, for example, usually the scenes are made more acceptable by operating directly on the visual code in order to mitigate the images. In Italian distribution, however, these scenes tend to be simply removed, which is easier and also less expensive, although in some cases images are modified in Italy as well. In the last episode of Sailor Moonfor instance, the protagonist of the series was shown completely naked, and the Italian distributors decided to cover the breasts and pubic area of the character with the juxtaposition of other images. Several studies Huesmann and Eron ; Huesmann and Moise ; Murray have argued that exposure to violence through media, especially during childhood, can have damaging effects on the spectators, who may become desensitized to violence and prone to aggressiveness.
For this reason, anime which are imported in Western countries to be shown to a young audience are often altered to remove violence, death, blood, and the use of weapons. This is achieved in various ways: sometimes blood and weapons are painted out or airbrushed, or the screen may be flashed in scenes which are considered violent, such as the moment of a physical blow typical in the case of martial arts.
Alteration on the verbal level may be performed for different reasons and in several cases, which vary from having to change the plot to make it more palatable for the target audience, to policies of domestication Venutito requirements to make the language comply to certain expected canons. Sometimes the plot is changed in dubbing through dialogue. This may happen for a of reasons. For example, the age of the characters is occasionally changed and made a few years older, and consequently also the level of the school they attend is altered accordingly.
This is due to the fact that quite often the characters have love relationships or are involved in situations which are considered more suitable to somewhat older individuals. In the Italian version of Dr. Plot modification is sometimes also performed to avoid ambiguities in the relationships between characters of the same sex which might be interpreted as homosexual.
Indeed, it is not uncommon to find allusions of this kind in Japanese anime especially in series classifiable as yaoi and yuribut Italian distributors tend to get rid of any such references. In the anime Card Captor Sakurafor example, the character of Tomoyo is clearly in love with Sakura both female charactersjust like Touya is with Yukito both male characters. In the Italian dubbed version of the anime all these relationships — which were considered to be inappropriate for an audience of children — have been turned into innocent friendships through dialogue alterations see note Also the anime Sailor Moon Anime italian girl out to be a difficult case for the Italian editors.
The therapist had received complaints by some parents of male children who apparently identified with the protagonist. The debate was further exacerbated by the fact that in the series there were three characters, the Sailor Starlights, who in normal circumstances looked and acted like men, while when they were fighting were transformed into women.
Transformations of this kind are a quite common phenomenon in Japanese animewhich is usually referred to as henshin Napier In the Italian adaptation the problem deriving from this gender ambiguity was solved by giving each male fighter a twin female sibling, therefore turning the three characters into six. Cultural streamlining in the editing of anime is quite common in Western distribution, where references to Japanese culture are usually domesticated, in order to make the product familiar to the audience.
In American distribution in particular, this process is very common and sometimes implies not only the verbal code, but also the visual one. Indeed, American editing often involves the substitution of Japanese elements with references drawn from American pop-culture, such as food. Moreover, American editing tends to delete any Japanese writing or inserts which occur on the screen and replace them with English text, Anime italian girl operating on the visual code once again see note Italian editing does not seem to always follow the same policy.
In the case of Japanese writings for instance, with street or shop s, maps, newspapers, billboards and the likeit once used to be quite common to eliminate them, resorting to the use of freeze frames. An example of this policy can be observed in the Italian version of the anime EfuF in which every single text that appeared on the screen written in Japanese characters was removed.
In the case of verbal references to Japanese realia, such as food, Italian dubbing quite often domesticates Anime italian girl, especially if they Anime italian girl not clearly visible on the screen, replacing them with Italian food realia or elements which belong to Western tradition and are easily recognizable by an Italian audience i. In any case, even when these elements are clearly visible on screen, nowadays it is preferred not to interfere with the visual code, unless strictly necessary, as it can be quite expensive to modify the images.
Another distinctive feature of Italian distribution is the fact that very often the names of the characters are changed and given Italianised, Americanised or invented names which are thought to be more easily pronounceable by Italian viewers and dubbing actors.
As with most audiovisual programmes, Japanese anime also present moments of silence which may last several seconds. In these cases some American, as well as Italian, distributors often opt for adding extra information in the form of dialogue.
In both these series, moments of silence before fight scenes, where the characters are sizing up their opponents, tend to be manipulated. In the Italian adaptation, these silences are filled with a voiceover adding new information about these moments.
The comments are invented tout court as they are not present in the original.
The same thing sometimes happens in the climax of love scenes, or particularly tragic moments. As a result, the tension linked to the moment tends Anime italian girl be spoiled, and anime fans have often complained about this procedure. Since violence and death are considered topics that can have a destabilizing effect on young spectators, as already seen in the section about censorship performed on the visual level, references to them tend to be prime candidates for censorship on the verbal level. Words related to the semantic field of deathfor example, are to be avoided. Even more neutral verbs such as morire and spirare [ to die, to pass away ] are not easily tolerated and the strategy is to render them through their more delicate and vague synonyms andarsenepassare a miglior vita [ to go awayto pass to a better life ].
In addition, mentions of blood are not accepted. In these cases it is more difficult to find a proper euphemism to replace its referent; therefore, and whenever possible, the reference is simply omitted. Nonetheless, when avoiding the reference proves impossible, translators may make use of expressions such as liquido corporeo [ body fluid ]. Likewise, drugs tend not to be mentioned either, and in Italian dubbing they are usually referred to as sostanze sospette [ suspicious substances ]. Needless to say that vulgar and strong expressions and interjections are also subject to changes and manipulation.
This, however, can sometimes be taken to Anime italian girl, as the only expressions or interjections allowed are unlikely neutral utterances that no one would ever use in real life, not even small children. Examples of admissible expressions are accipicchiaacciderbaacciderbolinaperdindirindina all of which would approximately correspond to the English blimey. Even the expression accidenti [ damn ], which is not vulgar at all, but is slightly more likely to occur in spontaneous spoken language, is forbidden by certain commissioners. Insults represent another element which is usually not allowed.
While in the original anime the characters might exchange verbal offences, which would correspond to English idiotstupid or dumbin Italian dubbing these terms are softened and the worst abuses likely to be mentioned are improbable phrases such as testa di legno [ wooden head ] and testa di rapa [ turnip head ], which, again, would not be used in authentic oral production. Therefore, it is clear how the tendency to delete or tone down references revolving around potentially disturbing elements such as violence and death, and to censor swearwords and vulgarities, which has been ascertained in various studies on Italian dubbing Bucaria ; Parini, forthcoming; Pavesi and Malinvernoreaches extreme levels in the case of anime.
Italian translators take an active part in the editing of anime. First of all, translators are most often the first ones to actually see the episodes. In fact, commissioners tend to purchase anime series without ly visioning them, mainly on the basis of the success of their manga version on the Italian market, or following their favourable reception in other countries.
Therefore, translators are supposed to report to the artistic director of the dubbing company any ambiguous or unpleasant elements they come across, so that they are later removed or altered during the post-production phase. Moreover, translators are responsible for performing censorship on the verbal level, manipulating the language as is indicated by the commissioners. The first thing to be taken into is that anime are generally translated into Italian via English. In fact, translators are given the video of the episode in Japanese, accompanied by a written script in English, which is the translation of the original Japanese.
In fact, it is not uncommon for the characters on the screen to speak for ten or even twenty seconds, while the script would just read something short and innocuous like Good morning, sir. When it comes to series such as Meitantei Konan ongoing; American edition: Case Closed ; Italian edition: Detective Conan ongoing the translating can indeed Anime italian girl quite problematic. This anime tells the stories of a teenage detective, Shinichi Kudo, who is forced by some criminals to drink a potion which makes him shrink into of about 7 years.
Shinichi then has to live his life accordingly, and in order to hide his real identity he adopts the name Conan Edogawa. Under his new identity, he continues to help the police solve mysterious cases, just as he used to do before being turned into. Each episode usually presents a murder case that the protagonist eventually solves. From these presuppositions it is easy to understand how translators can find themselves in quite a challenging situation. In every single episode they would have to refer to murders, murderers, killers, homicides, manslaughters, corpses, blood, and bloodsheds, without using any of the Italian equivalents for such words.
All direct references to the indicted referents ought to be avoided, or expressed by resorting to all sorts of euphemisms, such as colpevole [ guilty ] for murderer or homicidethe extremely vague term fatto [ fact ] for murder or killingand corpo [ body ] for corpse. The word sangue [ Anime italian girl ] should not be Anime italian girl, and that becomes a major challenge, as quite often Conan manages to solve the case thanks to a series of traces of blood.
In such cases the translators should avoid the direct reference as much as possible, and use a generic reference to tracesstains or spots of an unknown — or, in any case, unmentioned — substance. Such vagueness quite often in a lack of clarity throughout the story. This association maintains close relationships with some experts in the field and for over ten years has been actively engaged in the fighting against the manipulation and censorship of Japanese animation, mainly through the Internet.
The protests aired by the association seem to have achieved some. Indeed, in recent years it has been possible to observe some changes in the attitudes of distributors.
Until a few years ago watching unaltered programmes on terrestrial TV channels was only possible on MTV, which has always followed the policy of broadcasting uncut anime at night, during the non protected time slots, preceded by a warning about their content. Some satellite channels might broadcast cartoons targeted at adults at night as well. However, the most important changes have occurred in Mediaset channels, and especially Italia 1, the channel which commissions and broadcasts Anime italian girl highest of anime. However, in they broadcast at night hours some films of the Dragon Ball Z series and in the anime film Il castello errante di Howl ; Italian version of Hauru no ugoku shiro In sum, it is possible to state that the situation is changing, if only slowly and gradually.
However, it is important to acknowledge that the ardent fans of the genre seem to have their voices heard and to have achieved some small yet important in their fight against manipulation. It is also worthwhile underlining the fact that associations such as ADAM Italia which is part of an international net consisting of analogous groups, such as ADAM Spain, or Save Our Sailors in the USA do not aim simply at the preservation of the integrity of anime in their dubbed and post-produced versions.
They are also fully aware of the pressures that the distributors suffer because of the continuous attacks by associations of parents, who are worried about the exposure of their children to what they consider inappropriate programmes. What fans want is that distributors show more respect towards the products they import and acknowledge their real nature in the translation and the images that are sold in Italian. Their ultimate aim is Anime italian girl persuade Italian distributors to do in Italy what Japanese distributors do in Japan: show anime in different time slots according to their characteristics.
However, the way to get there still seems to be a very long, arduous one. The economic advantages related to the merchandising of the gadgets aimed at young children undoubtedly plays an extremely important role in the process of decision making, which closely relates to the actual editing of the anime.
Therefore, translators will presumably have to wait some more time before they can offer a translation which better reflects the content of the original programme. Anonymous ; Last update: : Storia e Spiegazioni delle Censure degli anime cartoni animati in Italia — Che cosa sono le «censure»? For a more detailed analysis of the peculiarities of anime and its sub-genres see Baricordi, De Giovanni et al.
The protected time slot was established in Italy in within a code of self-regulation ed by the main national television organisations, RAI and Mediaset.Anime italian girl
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